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Metals Rare

Metals Rare

 (2562)    (17)    0

antimony

Antimony (Sb, 51) is a metal from the group of semi-metals. It can have three different modifications: black (amorphous) antimony, gray (metallic) antimony, and glassy (explosive) antimony.

Antimony has the following properties:

- low hardness;

- can be crushed well;

- poor conductor of electricity and heat;

- does not react with hydrochloric acid;

- Resistant to air and water at room temperature.

Antimony use:

- as an alloy component for hardening other soft metals;

- manufacture of semiconductors;

- explosive detonators;

- as a flame retardant;

- Brake pads of vehicles.

Bismuth

Bismuth (Bi, 83) is a relatively soft and brittle heavy metal. It has a relatively low electrical and thermal conductivity and is not susceptible to non-oxidizing acids (hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid) and water. At normal temperature, bismuth behaves consistently in dry air.

Bismut metal has the following characteristics:

- relatively soft and brittle;

- low electrical and thermal conductivity;

- not susceptible to non-oxidizing acids and water;

- resistant to dry air.

Bismuth is used:

- for the production of low-melting alloys;

- for the construction of permanent magnets;

- as a coolant in nuclear technology;

- as a catalyst in the chemical industry;

- as bismuth preparations in medicine.

cadmium

Cadmium (Cd, 48) is a heavy metal from the group of transition metals. It is included in the zinc group. Cadmium is very plastic and can be easily deformed. It is stable in the air. The metal is insoluble in alkalis. It is sparingly soluble in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. Cadmium is readily soluble in nitric acid.

Cadmium is characterized by:

- excellent ductility;

- resistance to air;

- Insolubility in alkalis.

Cadmium is used:

- as rust protection for iron;

- for nickel-cadmium batteries;

- as an alloy metal in alloys with a low melting temperature;

- for yellow or red color pigments;

- as a stabilizer for plastics (PVC).

Chrome

Chrome (Cr, 24) is a hard transition metal from the chromium group. It is tough and easy to stretch and forge. Chrome metal is antiferromagnetic and has excellent corrosion resistance. At high temperatures it reacts with most non-metals.

Chrome has the following characteristics:

- tough and easily ductile and malleable;

- antiferromagnetic;

- excellent corrosion resistance;

- reacts with most non-metals.

Chrome metal is used:

- for the production of stainless chrome steel;

- for the production of cermets;

- for hard chrome plating;

- as a catalyst in the chemical industry;

- for the production of leather (chrome tanning).

cobalt

Cobalt (Co, 27) is a very tough heavy metal that belongs to the cobalt group. Cobalt metal is ferromagnetic and a good conductor of electricity and heat. It is resistant to water and moist air. Cobalt metal can only be attacked by oxidizing acids.

Cobalt metal has the following properties:

- very tough;

- ferromagnetic;

- good electricity and heat conductor;

- resistant to water and humid air;

- can only be attacked by oxidizing acids.

The main uses of cobalt metal are:

- as an alloy metal for corrosion-resistant hard metals;

- manufacture of permanent magnets;

- manufacture of color pigments;

- as a catalyst.

gallium

Gallium (Ga, 31) is a very soft metal from the boron group. It shows resistance in air and is attacked by acids and bases with evolution of hydrogen. Gallium metal has an unusually low melting point of only 29.76 ° C.

Gallium is characterized by the following properties:

- extremely low melting point (29.76 ° C);

- resistance to air;

- soluble in acids and bases with evolution of hydrogen.

Gallium metal is used in the following areas:

- Manufacture of gallium compounds for LED;

- construction of gallium thermometers;

- heat exchangers in nuclear reactors;

- fused alloys.

Indium

Indium (In, 49) is a soft heavy metal from the boron group. It has a high ductility and very low hardness. At high temperatures, indium metal reacts with many non-metals. The metal does not dissolve in hot water, bases and most organic acids.

The most important properties of indium are:

- high ductility and very low hardness;

- reacts with many non-metals;

- Not soluble in hot water, bases and most organic acids.

The main areas of application for indium metal are:

- Increase in corrosion resistance and hardness in other metals;

- construction of high temperature thermometers;

- construction of coils and transformers;

- Indium tin oxide as a conductor for flat screens and touch screens.

nickel

Nickel (Ni, 28) is a soft heavy metal from the nickel group, which is one of the transition metals. It can be polished and forged excellently, is ductile and ferromagnetic. At room temperature, nickel is very resistant to air, water, hydrochloric acid and alkalis.

Nickel is characterized by:

- good forgeability;

- excellent polishability;

- ferromagnetism;

- good ductility;

- very good resistance to air, water, hydrochloric acid and alkalis.

Nickel enjoys a demand:

- as an alloy metal for steel finishing;

- As a catalyst for hydrogenation reactions;

- as corrosion protection (nickel plating).

Niobium

Niobium (Nb, 41) is a ductile heavy metal from the vanadium group. It is one of the transition metals, has good ductility and excellent acid resistance at room temperature. Niobium metal is easy to process.

Niobium is characterized by:

- good ductility;

- excellent acid resistance at room temperature;

- good processing properties.

Niobium metal is in demand:

- as an alloy component for stainless steels;

- for the production of permanent magnets;

- for bimetal coins;

- as a catalyst.

Roses metal

Metall Rose is a bismuth alloy with a low melting temperature of approx. 94 ° C and a density of 9.32 g / cm³. Rose's metal is made up of approx. 50% bismuth, 25% lead and 25% tin.

Metal rose has the following properties:

- low melting temperature of approx. 94 ° C;

- density of 9.32 g / cm³;

- little toxic (compared to Woodmetall).

Rose's metal is used:

- to monitor the temperature;

- as heating and cooling fluid;

- as soft solder;

- as a fuse.

Scandium

Scandium (Sc, 21) is a light metal from the scandium group, which is assigned to the rare earth metals. It has a low density of only 2.98 g / cm³ and is pyrophoric in finely divided form. Scandium metal reacts with water and hydrochloric acid to generate hydrogen.

Scandium has the following characteristics:

- low density of only 2.98 g / cm³;

- pyrophoric properties in finely divided form;

- reacts with water and hydrochloric acid with evolution of hydrogen.

Scandium metal is used:

- as scandium iodide in high pressure mercury vapor lamps;

- as alloy metal in frames for racing bikes;

- for space travel;

- As a semiconductor material for power electronic components.

selenium

Selenium (Se, 34) is a semi-metal from the group of chalcogens. Selenium metal occurs in metallic and non-metallic modifications. Non-metallic manifestations are red selenium and black selenium. Metallic modification is gray selenium, which behaves like a semi-metal. Gray selenium is considered the most stable modification.

Selenium has the following properties:

- can exist in several modifications;

- is stable at room temperature;

- very low thermal conductivity.

Selenium metal is used:

- in semiconductor industry;

- as an alloy additive to free-cutting steels and copper alloys;

- in selenium rectifiers;

- for glass production.

Silicon

Silicon (Si, 14) is a brittle semimetal from the carbon group. Silicon has a very high thermal conductivity and at the same time very low electrical conductivity. It is insoluble in water and acids and is considered to be very slightly reactive.

Silicon is characterized by:

- brittleness;

- high thermal conductivity;

- low electrical conductivity;

- very poor responsiveness.

Silicon is used:

- for the production of microchips and semiconductors;

- for the production of solar cells;

- as an alloy metal for aluminum, iron and copper;

- as an abrasive (silicon carbide).

tin

Tin (Sn, 50) is a very soft heavy metal from the carbon group. It has a relatively low melting point. It comes in three modifications: α-tin, β-tin, and γ-tin. Tin metal is resistant to air and water at room temperature.

Tin is characterized by:

- low melting point;

- three modifications: α-tin, β-tin and γ-tin;

- Resistance to air and water at room temperature.

The main areas of application of tin metal are:

- as solder;

- as an alloy component of bronze;

- bearing metals;

- as a stabilizer for PVC;

- Food cans.

Wood's metal

Wood's metal is a low-melting bismuth alloy with a density of approx. 9.6 g / cm³ and a melting temperature of approx. 60 ° C. Woodmetall is composed of 50% bismuth, 25% lead, 12.5% cadmium and 12.5% tin.

Wood's metal is characterized by:

- very low melting temperature of approx. 60 ° C;

- almost insoluble in water;

- density of 9.6 g / cm³.

Woodmetall is used:

- as a fuse, for example for sprinkler systems;

- as an electrical fuse;

- for heating baths.

yttrium

Yttrium (Y, 39) is a light metal from the scandium group. It is one of the transition metals and is also assigned to the rare earth metals. The metal is stable in air. Hot water and acids attack yttrium with the formation of hydrogen. Trivalent yttrium salts are formed in the process.

Yttrium is characterized by:

- resistance to air;

- reacts with hot water and acids;

- low capture cross-section for neutrons.

Yttrium is used:

- in heating conductor lines;

- in spark plugs;

- for the production of rare earth magnets;

- as YAG in laser technology;

- as YIG for the production of memory chips.

zirconium

Zirconium (Zr, 40) is a relatively soft and ductile heavy metal from the titanium group. It is very corrosion resistant and easy to process. Zirconium metal is a poor conductor of electricity, but a relatively good conductor of heat. The metal is not soluble in almost all acids.

Zirconium has the following characteristics:

- very corrosion and acid resistant;

- good processing properties;

- poor conductor;

- relatively good heat conductor.

Zirconium metal is used:

- as Zircaloy in nuclear power plants;

- as building material for chemical plants;

- for building fireworks and signal lights;

- for surgical instruments;

- for the production of sandpaper.

zinc

Zinc (Zn, 30) is a brittle heavy metal from the zinc group. It is one of the transition metals. Zinc metal is resistant to corrosion and, in powdered form, has pyrophoric properties. Very high purity zinc does not react with acids.

Zinc has the following properties:

- resistant to corrosion;

- pyrophoric in powder form;

- acid-resistant in a highly pure form.

Zinc metal is used:

- as corrosion protection for steel and iron parts;

- as an alloy component of brass;

- in non-rechargeable batteries;

- as zinc sheet in construction.

Tantalum

Tantalum (Ta, 73) is a ductile heavy metal from the vanadium group. It is counted among the transition metals. Pure tantalum metal is easy to stretch and therefore easy to roll into sheets and wires. The metal is resistant to most acids and alkalis.

Tantalum is characterized by:

- good ductility;

- good processing properties;

- Resistance to most acids and alkalis;

- biocompatible.

Tantalum is used:

- as lining material in chemical apparatus engineering;

- for very small tantalum capacitors;

- for medical implants and instruments;

- in the construction of turbines and aircraft engines.

Tellurium

Tellurium is a semi-metal from the chalcogen group. It is brittle and easy to pulverize. Tellurium Metal occurs in two modifications: metallic tellurium and amorphous tellurium. The metal conducts electricity and heat very poorly.

The main properties of tellurium are:

- quite brittle;

- exists in two modifications;

- poor conductor of electricity and heat.

- insoluble in water.

The main areas of application of tellurium metal are:

- as an alloy component in other metals;

- for coloring glass and ceramics;

- in optical storage disks;

- in microbiology.

 (2562)    (17)    0

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